History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.
Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past years.
The term "critical thinking" has its roots in the mid-late 20th century. We offer here overlapping definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: It is thus to be contrasted with: Critical thinking varies according to the motivation underlying it.
As such it is typically intellectually flawed, however pragmatically successful it might be. When grounded in fairmindedness and intellectual integrity, it is typically of a higher order intellectually, though subject to the charge of "idealism" by those habituated to its selfish use.
Critical thinking of any kind is never universal in any individual; everyone is subject to episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought.
Its quality is therefore typically a matter of degree and dependent on, among other things, the quality and depth of experience in a given domain of thinking or with respect to a particular class of questions.
No one is a critical thinker through-and-through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and-such tendencies towards self-delusion.
For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long endeavor. Another Brief Conceptualization of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way. People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically.
They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies.
They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers — concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking. They work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in reason.
They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning, human irrationality, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest.
They strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society. At the same time, they recognize the complexities often inherent in doing so.
They avoid thinking simplistically about complicated issues and strive to appropriately consider the rights and needs of relevant others.
They recognize the complexities in developing as thinkers, and commit themselves to life-long practice toward self-improvement. They embody the Socratic principle: The unexamined life is not worth livingbecause they realize that many unexamined lives together result in an uncritical, unjust, dangerous world.
The Problem Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so.Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual timberdesignmag.comal thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
It presupposed assent to rigorous standards of. As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually timberdesignmag.com: Jennifer Wilson Mulnix.
Finally, given this account of critical thinking, and given recent studies in cognitive science, I suggest the most effective means for teaching students to think critically.
Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking. JENNIFER WILSON MULNIX Department of Philosophy, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking JENNIFER WILSON MULNIX Department of Philosophy, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Pages In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in , Edward Glaser defines critical thinking as follows “The ability to think critically, as conceived in this volume, involves three things: (1) an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences.
Educational Philosophy and Theory, doi: /jx Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking Jennifer Wilson Mulnix Department of Philosophy, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Abstract As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically.