ByPeirsey was seated on the Appomattox River "some five miles off the College People", where four of his men were slain in the massacre of
Because the Indian uprising had such an important impact on English colonization and Anglo-Powhatan relations, historians have concentrated their research on the larger issues.
In the process the more immediate suffering of the colonists has sometimes been obscured. These female colonists, perhaps 20 in all, were virtually the only captives taken by the Powhatans in the uprising. Few details of their ordeal have survived, and information about their lives is almost nonexistent.
In fact, we may never know if they shared the fascinating, if often horrifying, adventures of more well-known Indian captives in American history. The settlement was a disaster almost from the beginning.
The Society had dispatched some colonists to the plantation in October and sent between 30 and additional settlers before Marchbut by the eve of the Powhatan Uprising, less than remained alive. Disease, malnutrition, poor organization, and ignorance of their new environment all contributed to a high mortality rate.
Sincewhen Powhatan Chief Wahunsonacock agreed to peace after the English captured his daughter Pocahontas, the former enemies had enjoyed a cordial relationship. However, as more settlers moved in, carving the land up into tobacco plantations and ruining Indian hunting grounds by driving away the game, the Powhatans saw their centuries-old way of life being destroyed.
Determined to rid the land of the invaders, Opechancanough ordered the March 22 assault on the Virginia settlements. The warriors struck down the colonists with their own hammers and hatchets. The English were unprepared and surprised, and their attackers burned houses, killed livestock, scattered possessions, and mutilated the dead and dying before fleeing.
Although the official number of Virginia colonists killed was recorded atsome settlements, such as Bermuda Hundred, did not send in a report, so the number of dead was probably higher. Within months of the uprising, Edward Waterhouse, a secretary for the Virginia Company, reported in his official Declaration of the State of the Colony and.
However, Waterhouse overestimated the number slain, for he listed as dead several women who were unaccounted for and were presumed killed but who were, in fact, captives. At least 58 colonists died at the plantation, and the dazed and despairing survivors had every reason to believe that those missing had either been killed in inaccessible areas, hacked or burned beyond recognition, or captured, which they believed would lead to certain death.
The devastated colonists spent their time trying to feed and shelter themselves and brace for future attacks by the Indians. With her at the Indian stronghold near present-day West Point, Virginia, were Mistress Jeffries, wife of Nathaniel Jeffries who survived the uprising, and Jane Dickenson, wife of Ralph Dickenson, an indentured servant slain in the assault.
While their former neighbors feared new attacks, the captive women were placed in almost constant jeopardy by the fierce and frequent English raids on the Powhatans.
Lodged as they were with Opechancanough, the prime target of retaliation, the English women, like their captors, endured hasty retreats, burning villages, and hunger caused by lost corn harvests.
In Marchhe sent a message to Jamestown stating that enough blood had been spilled on both sides, and that because many of his people were starving he desired a truce to allow the Powhatans to plant corn for the coming year. In exchange for this temporary truce, Opechancanough promised to return the English women.
To emphasize his sincerity, he sent Mistress Boyse to Jamestown a week later. Boyse was the only woman sent back at this time, and she remained the sole returned captive for many months. For the present, colony officials felt that killing hostile Indians took precedence over saving English prisoners, and they never intended to honor the truce in good faith.
On May 22, Captain William Tucker and a force of musketeers met with Opechancanough and other prominent Powhatans on neutral ground along the Potomac River, allegedly to negotiate the release of the other captives. John Pott, had prepared for the occasion.
Some important tribal members were slain, but Opechancanough escaped, and with him went any hopes of a quick return for the captured women. Between May and November of that same year, the colonists ravaged the Powhatans throughout Tidewater Virginia. Successful raids by the settlers not only proved the undoing of the Powhatans but made fortunes for several Jamestown corn profiteers.
These raids against the Indians helped to heal the emotional wounds of the colonists, but victory came at a high price.
While the captive women suffered alongside their captors, the Indian war transformed the colony into an even cruder, crueler place than before.Feb 22, · Friday 22, March - the Indian Massacre.
Powhatan Indians lead a series of surprise attacks against 31 settlements and plantations in Virginia. In a few hours, they kill settlers on inhabitants living in the colony and destroy the ironworks under construction in Henricus.
Indian warriors killed hundreds of Virginia colonists during the Powhatan Uprising of Also among the victims were 20 women whose stories will never be fully told.
The relationship between the Jamestown settlers and the indigenous people of Virginia was strained from the start. Much of the initial ill will was rooted in the the colonists' belief that the Indians would welcome them and willingly supply food.
The Indian Rebellion of was a major uprising in India during –58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The event is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of , the Indian Insurrection, and .
In the first and only official publication about the uprising, A Declaration of the State of the Colony and Affaires in Virginia (), Edward Waterhouse, the secretary of the Virginia Company of Medallion Commemorating the Indian Attacks of Chief Opechancanough (O-pech"un-kä'nO) of the Powhatan Confederacy.
Part of the Powhatan Confederacy pages of the Native American topic found within the Va and Our Virginians Chapter of Volume I, Our American Immigrants, contained in the two Volume Within The Vines Historical Family timberdesignmag.comncanough is relevant to the .