Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development.
When the boy was three, his father, a small wool merchant, was forced by economic reverses to move for a year to Leipzig and thence to Vienna, where Freud spent the rest of his life— to — except for his last year. His biographers agree that the unusual structure of the family into which he was born was partly responsible for his interest in intimate human relationships: Sig mund, her first child, often played with his year-older nephew.
A brother who was born when Sigmund was not yet a year old died after eight months; then came four sisters and another brother. A dedicated student, Freud graduated summa cum laude from the Gymnasium at age 17 and entered the University of Vienna medical school.
After three years Freud became deeply involved in research, which delayed his m. In he met and became engaged to Martha Bernays, and he began clinical training in order to be able to earn a living from the practice of medicine. He continued research and publishing, was made Dozent, and received a grant in to study for several months with Charcot in Paris.
The next year he married and began practicing neurology; three sons and three daughters were born between and For the next five years, he continued to develop this psychotherapeutic method into psychoanalysis, gradually withdrawing from neurology, although by then he had an international reputation in that field.
The first major statement of his theories was The Inter pretation of Dreams In he was made professor extraordinarius at the University of Vienna, and about that time his publications and lectures began to attract a group of followers, which became in the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. The movement did not remain monolithic: An especially welcome early sign of recognition was the award of an honorary degree by Clark University inon which occasion he visited America with Jung, Ferenczi, and Jones and delivered a series of lectures.
In he had the first of many operations for cancer of the upper jaw, which finally proved fatal. During his last 16 years, Freud suffered almost constant pain and difficulty in speaking because of an awkward prosthesis, but he continued psycho analyzing and writing into his final year.
Only after the Nazi Anschluss could he be persuaded to leave Vienna, though he often had declared his detestation for the city. Long before the end, he had achieved world-wide acclaim and recognition as one of the decisive shapers of the twentieth century. Only the most superficial sketch of the development of his thought in the six hundred-odd papers and books he produced over these 63 years can be given here.
There were four major and overlapping phases of that development. The first dozen truly psy choanalytic papers appeared during this time, expounding the view that neurosis is a defense against intolerable memories of a traumatic experience— infantile seduction at the hands of a close relative.
With the discovery of his own Oedipus complex, however, Freud came to see that such reports by his patients were fantasies, which led him to turn his interest away from traumatic events in external reality and toward subjective psychic reality. He sent it to Fliess in high excitement, then quickly became discouraged by the difficulties of creating a thoroughgoing mechanistic and reductionistic psychology, tinkered with the model for a couple of years in letters to Fliess, and finally gave it up.
Hence, we speak of three meta psychological points of view.
The topographic model, which was first set forth in Chapter 7 of The Interpretation of Dreams and was further elab orated in the metapsychological papersconceptualizes thought and behavior in terms of processes in three psychological systems: First and best known is the clinical theory of psychoanalysis, with its psychopathology, its accounts of psychosexual development and character formation, and the like.
The subject matter of this type of theorizing consists of major events both real and fantasied in the life histories of persons, events occurring over spans of time ranging from days to decades. This theory is the stock in trade of the clinician—not just the psychoanalyst, but the vast majority of psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and psychiatric social workers.
Second, there is what Rapaport has called the general theory of psychoanalysis, also called metapsychology.
Its subject matter—proc esses in a hypothetical psychic apparatus or, at times, in the brain—is more abstract and impersonal; and the periods of time involved are much shorter—from fractions of a second up to a few hours.
The subject matter is man as a species or in groups, and the periods of time involved range from generations to eons. As far as the other two types of theory are concerned, however, they overlap fewer developmental periods: Finally, it will discuss historical antecedents of his ideas and influences upon them.
The literature on these topics is al ready large and growing rapidly, so this survey must be highly selective.
Contributions Freud may be said to have made five major contributions. Processes characterized by magical rather than rational logic and by wishfulness—a seeking for immediate gratification of crude sexual or aggressive impulses—are called primary. Freud emphasized the concepts of displacement and condensation of psychic energy in his conceptualization of the primary process and noted that it often makes use of symbols, which differ from other types of displacement substitutes in having been shared by many persons for generations.
These were the main theoretical resources Freud called upon to explain dreams, neurotic symptoms, psychotic thought and language, normal character traits, myths, creative thought, art, and humor. He saw the pervasive importance of conflict not merely the traditional opposition of reason and passion, or ego versus id, but also ego versus superego and superego versus id in both normal and abnormal behavior.
One of his earliest insights was that defenses—structuralized means of controlling impulse and preventing the outbreak of anxiety, thus being in effect resolutions of conflict —are major factors in the formation of symptoms and character traits and are shaping influences on the organization of thought.
He also described the specific mechanisms of defense, such as repression, projection, reaction formation, isolation, and mastery via the turning of passivity into activity.
He showed the necessity of knowing facts of development in order to understand personality; the importance of the events of early life for the main features of character, including the specific syndromes of the oral and anal character types as outgrowths of events at the corresponding psychosexual stages; the role of identification as a principle of learning and development; the importance of drive delay and control in development; and the nature of psychopathology as regression along a developmental path.
As Shakow and Rapaport have pointed out, in each instance it is the general conception and the observations that have been accepted, not the specific concepts and the explanatory theory in which they are embedded.
But this is to be expected:The growth contributions of the traditional therapies are, for the most part, concentrated in two areas -- their illumination of the depths and complexity of human personality, and their insights about the nature and dynamics of deeply blocked growth (pathology).
Dec 31, · Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory on Instincts: Motivation, Personality and Development timberdesignmag.com Human Growth and Development Theories - Duration: Trait theory | Behavior.
Mind Development uses many of these terms to describe personality structures, hence the following paper. Freud's basic concept was a construct of the human psyche as an orderly progression through the developmental stages of childhood to final maturation in adult life.
Sigmund Freud () was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior.
He became interested in hypnotism and how it could be used to help the mentally ill. Believing that most human suffering is determined during childhood development, Freud placed emphasis on the five stages of psychosexual development. As a child passes through these stages unresolved conflicts between physical drives and social expectation may arise.
Freud, Sigmund. The development of Freud’s ideas. Major contributions and weaknesses. Talcott () Social Structure and the Development of Personality: Freud’s Contribution to the Integration of Psychology and Sociology. Pages in Talcott Parsons, His developed theory of psychosexual development.