Coca, variety coca, which is cultivated on the eastern slopes of the Andes from Bolivia in the south to as far north as Ecuador. This area of the Andes has a tropical climate and experiences high amounts of rainfall. Coca in this region is usually grown between 1, and 4, feet in elevation.
Coca chewing out of the UN convention? Where is coca grown? Coca is traditionally cultivated in the lower altitudes of the eastern slopes of the Andes, or the highlands depending on the species grown, in particular in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. In the late 19th century, colonial powers replanted coca outside its natural habitat.
The coca plant was significant coca cultivation on the island of Java at the time part of the Dutch East-Indies, currently Indonesia and Ceylon Sri Lankaas well as Formosa at the time a Japanese protectorate, currently Taiwan.
In the s Java was the major producer of coca in the world. Coca could easily escape the Andes for other tropical regions if enough pressure to eradicate the plant is applied. Occasionally rumours crop up that coca is grown in the Congo, but there has been no definitive confirmation of its diversion to other continents.
How much do coca producers benefit from the drugs trade? For cocaine the cost of production and refining in the source countries is only one to two per cent of retail price in developing or transitional countries. The overwhelming majority of those involved in the drug trade make very modest incomes.
A few individuals in the trafficking, smuggling and wholesale sector make great fortunes but that accounts for a small share of the total income. What methods have been used to tackle the cocaine problem? Since the s aggressive strategies have been applied to eradicate coca cultivation in the Andean region — mainly instigated by the United States.
In Peru and Bolivia manual forced eradication has lead to clashes between coca-producers cocaleros and military, resulting in deaths and human right violations. Colombia is the country where forced eradication of illicit cultivation of coca is executed in the most aggressive way by aerial spraying with herbicides fumigation.
Aerial fumigation sets in motion a destructive vicious circle of chemical pollution, livelihood destruction, migration into even more vulnerable areas, deforestation, displacement and expansion of the areas of illicit crop cultivation, which then are again fumigated, etc.
This leads to erosion of state legitimacy, violation of human rights and increased peasant support for guerrilla movements. This vicious circle urgently needs to be broken, in defence of the peasants whose livelihoods are destroyed, to preserve the environment and to improve prospects for conflict resolution.
The Chemical and Biological "War on Drugs"Martin Jelsma, TNI Briefing, March, b Alternative development Another strategy is to provide coca-growing peasant with alternative development projects, substituting coca with other viable crops. The record of success, however, is a questionable one.
Conditionality refers to making alternative development assistance conditional on prior eradication of coca crops. Sequencing refers to the right sequence of interventions — e.
TNI advocates to make development assistance unconditional on reductions in illicit coca cultivation, and to ensure that eradication is not undertaken until small-farmer households have adopted viable and sustainable livelihoods and that interventions are properly sequenced.
Bolivian law now permits a certain amount of coca bush cultivation to satisfy demand for traditional uses. This policy has pacified the coca-growing region, which was formerly overshadowed by violent confrontations and human right abuses. Excess cultivation, which is considered to be for cocaine production, will be eradicated.
However, conflicts still occur over designation of traditional cultivation areas and eradication campaigns. Why is cocaine and drugs eradication not working? The period of 25 years as deadline for the ultimate extinction coca set in Single Convention has clearly not been met.
Inat the UN General Assembly Special Session on drugs UNGASSignoring decades of lack of success in addressing the issue of illicit crops, set the year as yet another deadline by which to eliminate or significantly reduce coca, opium and cannabis.
That target has not been met either. A Report on Global Illicit Drugs Marketscommissioned by the European Commission, found no evidence that the global drug problem has been reduced. The global number of users of cocaine expanded over the period. Wholesale and retail prices show a downward trend while purity is rising, which means there is no shortage on the market.
The basic presumption underlying forced eradication is that one can intervene in the workings of the illicit market, and substantially alter the demand-supply equation by simply cutting down the latter.
On a purely hypothetical level this presumption holds some truth: In the case of Bolivia, Colombia and Peru, the Andean and Amazon regions are an inexhaustible potential growing area, and there are dramatic numbers of impoverished and internally displaced people desperate enough to do anything to survive.Botany Coca is an erect, branched, smooth shrub, growing from 1 to 2 meters in height.
Leaves are thin, elliptic-oblong or narrowly obovate-elliptic, 2 to 7 centimeters long, with a blunt apex and pointed base. The Coca Plant Coca shrubs grow wild in much of South America, growing to heights of 12 to 18 feet, although cultivated plants are usually kept at about 6 feet.
There are over one hundred species of coca shrubs although only two are used for chewing. Amounts shown in italicized text are for items listed in currency other than Canadian dollars and are approximate conversions to Canadian dollars based upon Bloomberg's conversion rates.
Coca Plant Legality: High Success Rates · Medical Detox · Get Help Now · 24/7 Hotline. Erythroxylum coca is one of two species of cultivated coca. Description. The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height of 2–3 m (7–10 ft). The branches are straight, and the leaves, which have a green tint, are thin, opaque, oval, and taper at the extremities.
A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolated portion. Coca is a plant with a complex array of mineral nutrients, essential oils, and varied compounds with greater or lesser pharmacological effects – one of which happens to be the alkaloid cocaine, which in its concentrated, synthesized form is a stimulant with possible addictive properties.