Function[ edit ] Sample encapsulation of application data from UDP to a Link protocol frame The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts, encapsulating data into datagrams including fragmentation and reassembly and routing datagrams from a source host to a destination host across one or more IP networks.
The IP network number of this Ethernet segment is The host numbers for A, B, and C are 1, 2, and 3 respectively. These are Class C addresses, and therefore allow for up to nodes on this network segment.
Each of these nodes have corresponding Ethernet addresses, which are six bytes long.
In the diagram above and subsequent diagrams, we have emphasized the network number portion of the IP address by showing it in red. ARP will then broadcast a special request packet over the Ethernet segment, which all nodes will receive.
If the receiving node has the specified IP address, which in this case is C, it will return its Ethernet address in a reply packet back to A. Consider now two separate Ethernet networks that are joined by a PC, C, acting as an IP router for instance, if you have two Ethernet segments on your server.
Device C is acting as a router between these two networks. A router is a device that chooses different paths for the network packets, based on the addressing of the IP frame it is handling. Different routes connect to different networks.
The router will have more than one address as each route is part of a different network. Since there are two separate Ethernet segments, each network has its own Class C network number. This is necessary because the router must know which network interface to use to reach a specific node, and each interface is assigned a network number.
If A wants to send a packet to E, it must first send it to C who can then forward the packet to E. These Ethernet addresses are obtained using ARP as described earlier. If E was assigned the same network number as A, However, because E is on a different physical wire, it will never see the ARP request and so the packet cannot be delivered.
By specifying that E is on a different network, the IP module in A will know that E cannot be reached without having it forwarded by some node on the same network as A. Indirect Routing Direct routing was observed in the first example when A communicated with C. It is also used in the last example for A to communicate with B.
If the packet does not need to be forwarded, i. Indirect routing is used when the network numbers of the source and destination do not match.IP routing is the process of sending packets from a host on one network to another host on a different remote network.
This process is usually done by routers. Routers examine the destination IP address of a packet, determine the . This is the first single source for mastering all the routing protocols and configurations needed to work with Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems.
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Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) / IP Next Generation (IPng) Since , TCP/IP has been built on version 4 of the Internet timberdesignmag.com4 was created when the giant, world-wide Internet we take for granted today was just a small experimental network.
In its simplest form, ip route can be used to display the main routing table output. The output of this command is significantly different from the output of the timberdesignmag.com comparison, let's look at the output of both route -n and ip route show.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR / ˈ s aɪ d ər, ˈ s ɪ-/) is a method for allocating IP addresses and IP timberdesignmag.com Internet Engineering Task Force introduced CIDR in to replace the previous addressing architecture of classful network design in the timberdesignmag.com goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of.