Select an established nonprofit or a government organization that you will analyze throughout this course. This agency or organization should have enough information for you to analyze on a website or an actual location. Provide an overview of the agency. Remember to chose one program from your list of social problems.
Only at this stage, free parameters are introduced These parameters are a coupling electro-magnetic charge and the quark masses.
This mass generation is due to the dynamics of the strongly interacting quarks and gluons, the latter mediating the force like the photon in the case of Quantum Electrodynamics. However, in contrast to the photons, which are themselves uncharged and thus do not interact directly with one another, the gluons themselves carry the strong color charge.
This is the essential complication in the dynamics of the strong interaction, since it renders the interaction non-linear. Furthermore, due to the uncertainty relation of quantum physics and relativity, even the number of quarks inside the proton or neutron is not fixed: So far, the only known way to analyze QCD at small energies, where its interaction strength is large, is through simulations.
These simulations are based on the discretized theory, called Lattice QCD, which traditionally uses a space-time lattice with quarks on the lattice sites and the gluons located on the lattice links.
In the so-called continuum limit, the lattice spacing is sent to zero and QCD and the continuous space-time are recovered. Simulations of Lattice QCD require significant computational resources. As a matter of fact, they have been a driving force of supercomputer development.
A large range of special-purpose Lattice QCD machines, e.
Over the last decade, these simulations have matured substantially. Inthe first fully controlled calculation of the particle spectrum  became available and simpler quantities such as masses and decay constants are now routinely computed to percent precision.
Neutron, Proton, and the Stability of Matter In order to increase the precision of the calculations further, one has to address the largest sources of uncertainties, which, in case of the spectrum, are due to Electrodynamics and the difference between the up- and down-quark masses.
Once these effects are properly included in the simulations, one can calculate per mil effects of the particle spectrum of the Standard Model, e. For equal light quark masses, Electrodynamics renders the proton slightly heavier, due to energy stored in the electromagnetic field that surrounds it.
The light quark mass splitting, conversely, increases the neutron mass, since it contains two of the heavier down-quarks compared to one in case of the proton. The interplay between these effects has significant implications for the stability of matter.
If the neutron-proton mass splitting was about a third of the 0. Even with a value somewhat larger than 0. As a result, stars would not have ignited in the way they did.
On the other hand, a value considerably larger than 0. This would lead to far less neutrons at the end of the BBN epoch and would make the burning of hydrogen in stars and the synthesis of heavy elements more difficult. Including these effects is, however, non-trivial. The biggest obstacle turns out to be the long ranged nature of electrodynamics.
This introduces significant finite size effects, which are typically larger than the mass splittings one is interested in. In our recent calculation, the correct theoretical framework for a treatment of these effects was established and the finite-size corrections were calculated analytically.
A new simulation algorithm for the Electrodynamics part of the calculations was developed, which reduced the autocorrelation by three orders of magnitude. If we, however, increase the temperature of the system suffciently, both particles will "melt" and quarks and gluons behave as free particles, forming an exotic state of matter called quark-gluon plasma.
This rapid transition from the quark-gluon to the hadronic phase occurred when the early universe evolved from the "quark epoch", lasting from to seconds after the Big Bang, to the following hadron epoch, which ended when the universe was about one second old.
Considerable theoretical effort is invested attempting to describe these experiments, from collision to detector signals. At high temperatures, perturbative analyses of QCD become possible e.
The intermediate region, from ca. Presently available Lattice QCD results for the EoS neglect the effects of the charm quark, which restrict their region of applicability to temperatures below about MeV. In order to reach larger temperatures, we have set up new simulations which take the charm quark into account, using an improved formulation of Lattice QCD.
Our preliminary results illustrate the impact of the charm quark for temperatures larger than MeV Fig.
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The EoS is thus becoming available for the whole temperature region. In the first phase, an ensemble is generated through a Markov process. This phase is thus usually scaled to a large number of cores, minimizing "wall-clock" time.
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They have several designated Safe Place Sites that youth who ran away from home due to abuse, neglect, or abandoned by their families. We demonstrated checkpoint/restart of a production code on a Cray XC30, where a node holding checkpoint state was taken offline to simulate failure.
The prototype provides a split MPI runtime and communication driver (Infiniband).