That is exactly why so many of them lose precious points on the final part of their academic assignments — even when the intro and the body were very impressive.
Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects.
Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph.
Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence. For example, you might be able to omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that academic writing paragraph sentences a series of events, if a paragraph continues developing an idea that you introduced with a topic sentence in the previous paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly refer—perhaps indirectly—to a main point.
The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence.
You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader.
The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization. In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle inches in diameter, and with it see times farther into the depths of space.
Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum.
Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality. Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph.
If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.
If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea.
On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhapsyou may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below.
Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it.
This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech.
By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences helps your reader see the connections between ideas. In the paragraph above about scientists and the sense of sight, several sentences in the body of the paragraph have been constructed in a parallel way.
The parallel structures which have been emphasized help the reader see that the paragraph is organized as a set of examples of a general statement. Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number.
Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence. Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow.The Guide to Grammar and Writing contains scores of digital handouts on grammar and English usage, over computer-graded quizzes, recommendations on writing -- from basic problems in subject-verb agreement and the use of articles to exercises in parallel structures and help with argumentative essays, and a way to submit questions about grammar and writing.
Using English for Academic Purposes For Students in Higher Education. Academic Writing. Andy Gillett. IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 involves writing a report based on visual information (such as charts or graphs).
Luckily, IELTS Writing Task 1 is a very predictable exercise.
Use our complete guide for everything you need to . What Is “Academic” Writing? by L. Lennie Irvin This essay is a chapter in Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 1, a peer-reviewed open textbook series for the writing classroom, and is published through Parlor Press.
Writers often think of paragraphs as units of length, but the paragraph measures something more abstract than inches of paper: it measures timberdesignmag.com paragraph in an academic paper acts as a concrete unit of the central argument.
Every paragraph advances a new claim, building on the claims that have come before, until the writer conclusively establishes the position of the entire paper.
Topic sentences at the beginning of a paragraph frequently combine with a transition from the previous paragraph. This might be done by writing a sentence that contains both subordinate and independent clauses, as in the example below.