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Bivariate correlations see Table 1right part showed that selfie frequency was strongly positively correlated with own, group selfie, while more moderately correlated with partner selfie. All selfie posting frequencies except partner selfies were positively correlated with likes especially own selfie had a strong coefficientand with motivations concerning communication, archiving, and entertainment, while not correlated with attention except for own selfie.
Partner selfie was not correlated with any of these variables. NPI and RSE moderately positively correlated between them were differently correlated with the other variables: NPI was moderately positively correlated with own selfie, likes, attention-seeking and entertainment, while RSE was moderately positively correlated with partner selfie, and negatively with likes, attention seeking, and entertainment.
As concerns the path analysis model, we started from a model which included all paths from NPI and RSE to the four selfie posting motives, and all paths from motives to the items identifying selfie-posting behaviors.
Moreover, the modification indexes suggested to set free the paths from NPI to own selfie and the ones from RSE to partner selfie and likes. Final path coefficients see Figure 1 showed that NPI and RSE both predicted entertainment and attention-seeking but in an opposite direction: Moreover, NPI had a direct positive effect on own selfies and RSE a direct positive effect on partner selfie and a negative effect on likes.
Motivations for posting selfies were positively predictors of selfie-posting. In particular, communication predicted group and own selfie and likes, entertainment predicted own selfie, and attention predicted likes. Archiving did not significantly predict any variable.
Reported coefficients are standardized. Discussion The main aim of the present research is to investigate the different predictions of narcissism and self-esteem on selfie-posting behaviors through the mediation of the selfie posting motives.
Given the hypothetical effects of these two personality traits in self-presentation strategies, the current study explores these differences in a rather new form of self-promotion, i. First of all, we have hypothesized that women would score higher on selfie-posting frequencies than men.
The results partially confirm this hypothesis. Indeed, according with the previous literature on selfies e. Indeed, scholars have shown that men tend to portray themselves on SNSs according to stereotypical standards of masculinity e.
The lack of differences in overall selfie posting frequencies could also be explained by the fact that the men in our sample have higher scores on narcissism as compared to women. In this sense, it is reasonable that individuals with high levels of narcissism use selfies as a usual means to manage impressions Sung et al.
Second, the relations of narcissism and self-esteem with the overall selfie-posting frequency are not significant. In accordance with Barry, Doucette, Loflin, Rivera-Hudson, and Herringtonwe found a general lack of association between narcissism and self-esteem with overall postings of selfies, suggesting that personality traits are significantly related just to specific categories of selfies.
Narcissism indeed correlates with own selfie posting, while self-esteem with partner selfie. In this sense, by being people who seek attention and exhibitionism, narcissists attach great importance to posting own selfies, faced with an audience of admirers, and less importance to posting in general or sharing group or partner selfies Vazire et al.
This is confirmed by the significant positive correlation between NPI and the importance attached to the likes received. As suggested by Sorokowski et al. Thus, our study extends previous results concerning the positive relationship between narcissism and self-promoting behaviors in social networking websites e.
Instead, self-esteem only positively correlates with partner selfies. Third, as could be expected, our study found that the four motives investigated are correlated to frequency of selfie posting, suggesting that the higher are selfie motivations, the greater is the frequency of selfie sharing.
However, it is worth noting that communication, archiving and entertainment motives are correlated with all frequencies except for partner selfie which is an infrequent selfie posting behavior, at least in our research. Instead, attention motive is linked only to own selfie posting.
These results suggest that each motive might be differently linked to frequencies depending on the type of selfie.Jun 13, · Some studies have failed to support an association between gambling behavior and reward characteristics (Weatherly and Brandt ); others have found only partial support for a relationship (Haw ), whereas others have reported support for a relationship between gambling behavior and reward characteristics (e.g., Coates and Blaszczynski ; Dixon et al.
). Descriptive analyses were conducted for problem behavior and potential precursors to problem behavior for 2 participants. Data from the descriptive observations were transformed into static (based on the entire descriptive observation) and dynamic (based on moment-to-moment changes) probability values.
Since few studies on this topic, to our knowledge, have modeled consumption behavior that could influence the consumption frequency of low-fat, low-sugar and high-calorie foods, the following theoretical hypotheses were established, taking the relationships between personality traits, intrinsic characteristics, and food choice motives into account in order to model consumption behavior.
Psychological factors were also studied indicating that self-esteem was a significant predictor of competition/ego, affiliation, and physical condition motives, trait anxiety predicted motives of psychological condition, and to meet others’ expectations, whereas social physique anxiety predicted the appearance motive.
-descriptive and correlational- examine behavior as it naturally occurs. useful for describing and predicting behavior, but do not allow researchers to asses causality.
correlations have limitation, including directionality problems and the third variable problem. Descriptive Analysis Page Status: Reviewed Definition: This is a general term referring to both a procedure (directly observing the behavior as it occurs in the natural environment), and the outcome (a statement or hypothesis of the variable(s) setting the occasion for and maintaining the occurrence of a particular behavior).